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# Algebra

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592
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Compute the sum $$\frac{2}{1 \cdot 2 \cdot 3} + \frac{2}{2 \cdot 3 \cdot 4} + \frac{2}{3 \cdot 4 \cdot 5} + \cdots$$

Sep 23, 2017

#4
+20848
+2

Algebra

Compute the sum $$\mathbf{\frac{2}{1 \cdot 2 \cdot 3} + \frac{2}{2 \cdot 3 \cdot 4} + \frac{2}{3 \cdot 4 \cdot 5} + \cdots}$$

$$\begin{array}{lcll} \mathbf{ \dfrac{2}{1 \cdot 2 \cdot 3} + \dfrac{2}{2 \cdot 3 \cdot 4} + \dfrac{2}{3 \cdot 4 \cdot 5} + \dfrac{2}{4 \cdot 5 \cdot 6} + \cdots \ + \dfrac{2}{n \cdot (n+1) \cdot (n+2)} + \cdots =\ \mathbf{ ? } } \\\\ \begin{array}{|lcll|} \hline s_n = \dfrac{2}{1 \cdot 2 \cdot 3} + \dfrac{2}{2 \cdot 3 \cdot 4} + \dfrac{2}{3 \cdot 4 \cdot 5} + \dfrac{2}{4 \cdot 5 \cdot 6} + \cdots \ + \dfrac{2}{n \cdot (n+1) \cdot (n+2)} \\ \hline \end{array} \\ \end{array}\\$$

Formula:

$$\begin{array}{|lcll|} \hline \text{in general}:\ \frac{1}{n(n+d)} = \frac{1}{d}\left(\frac{1}{n}- \frac{1}{n+d} \right) \\ \hline \\ \begin{array}{lrcll} \text{we need}: & \dfrac{1}{(n+1)(n+2)} &=& \dfrac{1}{n+1}-\dfrac{1}{n+2} \\ & \dfrac{1}{n(n+1)} &=& \dfrac{1}{n}-\dfrac{1}{n+1} \\ & \dfrac{1}{n(n+2)} &=& \dfrac{1}{2} \left( \dfrac{1}{n}-\dfrac{1}{n+2} \right) \\ \end{array} \\ \hline \end{array}$$

we rearrange:

$$\begin{array}{|rcll|} \hline \dfrac{2}{n \cdot (n+1) \cdot (n+2)} \\\\ &=& \dfrac{2}{n}\times \dfrac{1}{(n+1) \cdot (n+2)} \\\\ &=& \dfrac{2}{n}\times \left( \dfrac{1}{n+1}-\dfrac{1}{n+2} \right) \\\\ &=& \dfrac{2}{n}\times \dfrac{1}{n+1} - \dfrac{2}{n}\times \dfrac{1}{n+2} \\\\ &=& 2\times \left(\dfrac{1}{n}-\dfrac{1}{n+1} \right)- 2\times \dfrac{1}{2} \times \left(\dfrac{1}{n} -\dfrac{1}{n+2} \right) \\\\ &=& \dfrac{2}{n} - \dfrac{2}{n+1} -\dfrac{1}{n} + \dfrac{1}{n+2} \\\\ \mathbf{\dfrac{2}{n \cdot (n+1) \cdot (n+2)} } & \mathbf{=} & \mathbf{ \dfrac{1}{n} - \dfrac{2}{n+1} + \dfrac{1}{n+2} } \\ \hline \end{array}$$

telescoping series

$$\begin{array}{|rcll|} \hline s_n &=& \mathbf{\dfrac{1}{1}} &\mathbf{-}& \mathbf{\dfrac{2}{2}} &\color{red}+& \color{red}\dfrac{1}{3} \\\\ &\mathbf{+}& \mathbf{\dfrac{1}{2}} &\color{red}-& \color{red}\dfrac{2}{3} &\color{blue}+& \color{blue}\dfrac{1}{4} \\\\ &\color{red}+& \color{red}\dfrac{1}{3} &\color{blue}-& \color{blue}\dfrac{2}{4} &\color{red}+& \color{red}\dfrac{1}{5} \\\\ &\color{blue}+& \color{blue}\dfrac{1}{4} &\color{red}-& \color{red}\dfrac{2}{5} &\color{green}+& \color{green}\dfrac{1}{6} \\\\ && \ldots \\\\ &+\color{red}& \color{red}\dfrac{1}{n-2} &\color{green}-& \color{green}\dfrac{2}{n-1} &\color{red}+& \color{red}\dfrac{1}{n} \\\\ &\color{green}+& \color{green}\dfrac{1}{n-1} &\color{red}-& \color{red}\dfrac{2}{n} &\mathbf{+}& \mathbf{\dfrac{1}{n+1}} \\\\ &\color{red}+& \color{red}\dfrac{1}{n} &\mathbf{-}& \mathbf{\dfrac{2}{n+1}} &\mathbf{+}& \mathbf{\dfrac{1}{n+2}} \\ \hline \end{array}$$

The part of each term cancelling with part of the next two diagonal terms:

Example:

$$\begin{array}{|lcll|} \hline \frac{1}{3}-\frac{2}{3}+\frac{1}{3} = 0 \\ \frac{1}{4}-\frac{2}{4}+\frac{1}{4} = 0 \\ \frac{1}{5}-\frac{2}{5}+\frac{1}{5} = 0 \\ \ldots \\ \frac{1}{n}-\frac{2}{n} + \frac{1}{n} = 0 \\ \hline \end{array}$$

So $$s_n$$ is, we have all black terms left :

$$\begin{array}{|rcll|} \hline s_n &=& \dfrac{1}{1}-\dfrac{2}{2}+\dfrac{1}{2} + \dfrac{1}{n+1} - \dfrac{2}{n+1} + \dfrac{1}{n+2} \\\\ \mathbf{s_n} &\mathbf{=}& \mathbf{\dfrac{1}{2} - \dfrac{1}{n+1} + \dfrac{1}{n+2}} \\ \hline \end{array}$$

$$\lim \limits_{n\to \infty} { \dfrac{1}{n+1}} = 0 \quad \text{ and } \quad \lim \limits_{n\to \infty} { \dfrac{1}{n+2} } = 0$$

$$\begin{array}{|rcll|} \hline \lim \limits_{n\to \infty} s_n &=& \dfrac{1}{2} - 0 + 0 \\ &=& \dfrac{1}{2} \\ \hline \end{array}$$

$$\begin{array}{lcll} \mathbf{ \dfrac{2}{1 \cdot 2 \cdot 3} + \dfrac{2}{2 \cdot 3 \cdot 4} + \dfrac{2}{3 \cdot 4 \cdot 5} + \dfrac{2}{4 \cdot 5 \cdot 6} + \cdots \ + \dfrac{2}{n \cdot (n+1) \cdot (n+2)} + \cdots =\ \mathbf{ \dfrac{1}{2} } } \\ \end{array}\\$$

Sep 25, 2017
edited by heureka  Sep 3, 2018

#1
0

∑[2/(n(n+1)(n+2)), n=1 to 1000] =0.49999.......converges to 1/2.

Sep 24, 2017
#2
+95350
+1

guest there really is not a lot of point posting if you cannot give any working.

Melody  Sep 24, 2017
#3
+95350
0

I am just displaying the question better.

$$\frac{2}{1 \cdot 2 \cdot 3} + \frac{2}{2 \cdot 3 \cdot 4} + \frac{2}{3 \cdot 4 \cdot 5} + \cdots$$

.
Sep 24, 2017
#4
+20848
+2

Algebra

Compute the sum $$\mathbf{\frac{2}{1 \cdot 2 \cdot 3} + \frac{2}{2 \cdot 3 \cdot 4} + \frac{2}{3 \cdot 4 \cdot 5} + \cdots}$$

$$\begin{array}{lcll} \mathbf{ \dfrac{2}{1 \cdot 2 \cdot 3} + \dfrac{2}{2 \cdot 3 \cdot 4} + \dfrac{2}{3 \cdot 4 \cdot 5} + \dfrac{2}{4 \cdot 5 \cdot 6} + \cdots \ + \dfrac{2}{n \cdot (n+1) \cdot (n+2)} + \cdots =\ \mathbf{ ? } } \\\\ \begin{array}{|lcll|} \hline s_n = \dfrac{2}{1 \cdot 2 \cdot 3} + \dfrac{2}{2 \cdot 3 \cdot 4} + \dfrac{2}{3 \cdot 4 \cdot 5} + \dfrac{2}{4 \cdot 5 \cdot 6} + \cdots \ + \dfrac{2}{n \cdot (n+1) \cdot (n+2)} \\ \hline \end{array} \\ \end{array}\\$$

Formula:

$$\begin{array}{|lcll|} \hline \text{in general}:\ \frac{1}{n(n+d)} = \frac{1}{d}\left(\frac{1}{n}- \frac{1}{n+d} \right) \\ \hline \\ \begin{array}{lrcll} \text{we need}: & \dfrac{1}{(n+1)(n+2)} &=& \dfrac{1}{n+1}-\dfrac{1}{n+2} \\ & \dfrac{1}{n(n+1)} &=& \dfrac{1}{n}-\dfrac{1}{n+1} \\ & \dfrac{1}{n(n+2)} &=& \dfrac{1}{2} \left( \dfrac{1}{n}-\dfrac{1}{n+2} \right) \\ \end{array} \\ \hline \end{array}$$

we rearrange:

$$\begin{array}{|rcll|} \hline \dfrac{2}{n \cdot (n+1) \cdot (n+2)} \\\\ &=& \dfrac{2}{n}\times \dfrac{1}{(n+1) \cdot (n+2)} \\\\ &=& \dfrac{2}{n}\times \left( \dfrac{1}{n+1}-\dfrac{1}{n+2} \right) \\\\ &=& \dfrac{2}{n}\times \dfrac{1}{n+1} - \dfrac{2}{n}\times \dfrac{1}{n+2} \\\\ &=& 2\times \left(\dfrac{1}{n}-\dfrac{1}{n+1} \right)- 2\times \dfrac{1}{2} \times \left(\dfrac{1}{n} -\dfrac{1}{n+2} \right) \\\\ &=& \dfrac{2}{n} - \dfrac{2}{n+1} -\dfrac{1}{n} + \dfrac{1}{n+2} \\\\ \mathbf{\dfrac{2}{n \cdot (n+1) \cdot (n+2)} } & \mathbf{=} & \mathbf{ \dfrac{1}{n} - \dfrac{2}{n+1} + \dfrac{1}{n+2} } \\ \hline \end{array}$$

telescoping series

$$\begin{array}{|rcll|} \hline s_n &=& \mathbf{\dfrac{1}{1}} &\mathbf{-}& \mathbf{\dfrac{2}{2}} &\color{red}+& \color{red}\dfrac{1}{3} \\\\ &\mathbf{+}& \mathbf{\dfrac{1}{2}} &\color{red}-& \color{red}\dfrac{2}{3} &\color{blue}+& \color{blue}\dfrac{1}{4} \\\\ &\color{red}+& \color{red}\dfrac{1}{3} &\color{blue}-& \color{blue}\dfrac{2}{4} &\color{red}+& \color{red}\dfrac{1}{5} \\\\ &\color{blue}+& \color{blue}\dfrac{1}{4} &\color{red}-& \color{red}\dfrac{2}{5} &\color{green}+& \color{green}\dfrac{1}{6} \\\\ && \ldots \\\\ &+\color{red}& \color{red}\dfrac{1}{n-2} &\color{green}-& \color{green}\dfrac{2}{n-1} &\color{red}+& \color{red}\dfrac{1}{n} \\\\ &\color{green}+& \color{green}\dfrac{1}{n-1} &\color{red}-& \color{red}\dfrac{2}{n} &\mathbf{+}& \mathbf{\dfrac{1}{n+1}} \\\\ &\color{red}+& \color{red}\dfrac{1}{n} &\mathbf{-}& \mathbf{\dfrac{2}{n+1}} &\mathbf{+}& \mathbf{\dfrac{1}{n+2}} \\ \hline \end{array}$$

The part of each term cancelling with part of the next two diagonal terms:

Example:

$$\begin{array}{|lcll|} \hline \frac{1}{3}-\frac{2}{3}+\frac{1}{3} = 0 \\ \frac{1}{4}-\frac{2}{4}+\frac{1}{4} = 0 \\ \frac{1}{5}-\frac{2}{5}+\frac{1}{5} = 0 \\ \ldots \\ \frac{1}{n}-\frac{2}{n} + \frac{1}{n} = 0 \\ \hline \end{array}$$

So $$s_n$$ is, we have all black terms left :

$$\begin{array}{|rcll|} \hline s_n &=& \dfrac{1}{1}-\dfrac{2}{2}+\dfrac{1}{2} + \dfrac{1}{n+1} - \dfrac{2}{n+1} + \dfrac{1}{n+2} \\\\ \mathbf{s_n} &\mathbf{=}& \mathbf{\dfrac{1}{2} - \dfrac{1}{n+1} + \dfrac{1}{n+2}} \\ \hline \end{array}$$

$$\lim \limits_{n\to \infty} { \dfrac{1}{n+1}} = 0 \quad \text{ and } \quad \lim \limits_{n\to \infty} { \dfrac{1}{n+2} } = 0$$

$$\begin{array}{|rcll|} \hline \lim \limits_{n\to \infty} s_n &=& \dfrac{1}{2} - 0 + 0 \\ &=& \dfrac{1}{2} \\ \hline \end{array}$$

$$\begin{array}{lcll} \mathbf{ \dfrac{2}{1 \cdot 2 \cdot 3} + \dfrac{2}{2 \cdot 3 \cdot 4} + \dfrac{2}{3 \cdot 4 \cdot 5} + \dfrac{2}{4 \cdot 5 \cdot 6} + \cdots \ + \dfrac{2}{n \cdot (n+1) \cdot (n+2)} + \cdots =\ \mathbf{ \dfrac{1}{2} } } \\ \end{array}\\$$

heureka Sep 25, 2017
edited by heureka  Sep 3, 2018
#5
+95350
+2

Thanks Heureka

Melody  Sep 25, 2017
#6
+94548
+2

Nice, heureka.....!!!!

Sep 25, 2017
#7
+20848
+3

Thank you Melody and CPhill

Sep 26, 2017