Percent just means 'hundredth' of something. So 3% of 20 is just 3 hundredths of 20
that is 3/100 x 20 .
14% of 9% is 14 hundredths of 9 hundredths or 14/100 x 9/100. That's all there is to it.
To calculate the percentage increase, work out the difference (increase) between the two numbers you are comparing. Then divide the increase by the original number and multiply the answer by 100.