What causes the variations in Earth’s surface temperature during the course of a year at a given location? What causes the similar temperature bands that repeat from year to year?
There is a HUGE number of variables (local and global....el Nino, la Nina etc) that determine local temperature during a given year......that is why all of the climate models fail miserably and weather is difficult to predict.
I expect what you are inquiring about for your scince class involves the 23 1/2 degree axis tilt of the Earth as it revolves around the sun. In the summer the surface of the Earth is tilted TOWARD the sun and receives more direct sunlight (and you will see the sun gets higher in the sky during the day....and the days are LONGER)....the opposite in the Winter. Actually, in the Northern Hemisphere , we are actually about 3 million mile closer to the Sun in our annual elliptical orbit around the Sun than in the Summer.
The similar temp bands from year to year reflect our relative position in our orbit around the Sun. In Spring, we are in the same position in our orbit as any other Spring....same for Summer, Winter and Fall.