Once you understand what a logarithm is, these problems become pretty easy. Logarithms are exponents. The specific logarithm,

, is the exponent for 4 that results in 16. So we ask ourselves, what power of 4 is 16? Or 4 to what power is 16? The answer: 2! So:

What power of 4 is 1/16? If you understand negative exponents then you will understand that if

then

. So:

I will leave this one up to you. Hint:

.